China's proven mineral resources rank third in the world after Russia and the US but in per capita terms they are just a half of the world's average. The nation has rich deposits of coal, iron, mercury, aluminum, lead, uranium, oil, natural gas and rare earth elements.
China's rapid economic growth is fueled by behemoth consumption of commodities and resources, and this strong demand exerts a profound impact on the international market. China is the largest or one of the largest users and producers of major metals such as copper, aluminum and gold. China's total energy consumption was 3.25 billion tons of coal equivalent in 2010.
In 2010 China produced
3.24 billion tons of coal, up 9% from 2009;
203 million tons of crude oil, up 6.9% from 2009;
95.1 billion m3 of natural gas, up 13.1% from 2009;
626.6 million tons of crude steel, up 9.3% from 2009;
1.87 billion tons of cement, up 15.5% from 2009;
4.79 million tons of copper, up 12% from 2009;
15.65 million tons of aluminum, up 19.9% from 2009;
340.88 tons of gold, up 8.6% from 2009.
In 2010 China imported
164.83 million tons of coal, up 31% from 2009;
293.31 million tons of crude oil, up 17.5% from 2009;
36.88 million tons of refined oil, down 0.2% from 2009;
16.61 billion m3 of natural gas, up 47.1% from 2009;
16.43 million tons of steel, down 6.8% from 2009;
4.29 million tons of copper, unchanged from 2009;
618.65 million tons of iron ore, down 1.4% from 2009.
In 2010 China exported
19.03 million tons of coal, down 15% from 2009;
3.03 million tons of crude oil, down 40.2% from 2009;
26.88 million tons of refined oil, up 7.5% from 2009;
4.06 billion m3 of natural gas, up 25.6% from 2009;
42.56 million tons of steel, up 73% from 2009;
38,730 tons of copper concentrate, down 46.9% from 2009.
The top five mainland-listed commodity miner or producers by market value are
- Aluminum Corporation of China (SHA: 601600, NYSE: ACH, HKG: 2600), based in Beijing
- Jiangxi Copper Co (SHA: 600362, HKG: 0358), based in Guixi, Jiangxi
- Anhui Conch Cement Co (SHA: 600585, HKG: 0914), based in Wuhu, Anhui
- Baoshan Iron & Steel Co (SHA: 600019), based in Shanghai
- Inner Mongolia Baotou Steel Rare Earth Group Hi-Tech Co (SHA: 600111), based in Baotou, Inner Mongolia